Document Type

Article

Publication Date

10-1-2011

Abstract

Airborne vertically pointing Doppler radar data collected in 10 winter storms over the Medicine Bow Range in Wyoming are used to examine the importance of boundary layer (BL) turbulence for orographic precipitation growth. In all 10 cases, the cloud-base temperature was below 0° and the bulk Froude number was more than 1.0, implying little or no blocking of the flow by the mountain barrier. Seven of the 10 storms sampled were postfrontal, with weak static stability and relatively shallow cloud tops. Doppler vertical velocity transects depict an approximately 1-km-deep turbulent layer draped over the terrain, sometimes clearly distinct from the stratified flow in the free troposphere aloft, where vertical motion is largely controlled by gravity wave dynamics. Spectral analysis of near-surface Doppler vertical velocity data in terrain-following coordinates reveals an inertial subrange with decreasing power with height toward the BL top. The composite of radar data profiles from the 10 flights is analyzed in frequency-by-altitude diagrams, with altitude expressed above ground level. These diagrams indicate a wide range of vertical velocities in the BL, and rapid snow growth within the BL as air rises through the cloud base, especially when BL turbulence is more intense. This snow growth is concentrated on the windward side of mountains, above the terrain-cloud base intersection. The dominant snow growth mechanism in the BL (i.e., by accretion or vapor deposition) cannot be established because of restrictions in aircraft flight level over complex terrain. Snow aggregation may have contributed to the observed rapid increase in reflectivity in the BL along the windward slope. © 2011 American Meteorological Society.

DOI

10.1175/JAS-D-10-05009.1

Comments

© Copyright 2011 American Meteorological Society (AMS). Permission to use figures, tables, and brief excerpts from this work in scientific and educational works is hereby granted provided that the source is acknowledged. Any use of material in this work that is determined to be “fair use” under Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act September 2010 Page 2 or that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 108 of the U.S. Copyright Act (17 USC §108, as revised by P.L. 94-553) does not require the AMS’s permission. Republication, systematic reproduction, posting in electronic form, such as on a web site or in a searchable database, or other uses of this material, except as exempted by the above statement, requires written permission or a license from the AMS. Additional details are provided in the AMS Copyright Policy, available on the AMS Web site located at (http://www.ametsoc.org/) or from the AMS at 617-227-2425 or copyrights@ametsoc.org.

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