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Keywords

Linear preserver; Hadamard majorization; Doubly stochastic matrix

Abstract

Let $\textbf{M}_{n }$ be the set of all $n \times n $ realmatrices. A matrix $D=[d_{ij}]\in\textbf{M}_{n } $ with nonnegative entries is called doubly stochastic if $\sum_{k=1}^{n} d_{ik}=\sum_{k=1}^{n} d_{kj}=1$ for all $1\leq i,j\leq n$. For $ X,Y \in \textbf{M}_{n}$ we say that $X$ is Hadamard-majorized by $Y$, denoted by $ X\prec_{H} Y$, if there exists an $n \times n$ doubly stochastic matrix $D$ such that $X=D\circ Y$.In this paper, some properties of$\prec_{H}$ on $\textbf{M}_{n}$ are first obtained, and then the (strong) linear preservers of$\prec_{H}$ on $\textbf{M}_{n }$ are characterized. For $n\geq3$, it is shown that the strong linear preservers of Hadamard majorization on $\textbf{M}_{n}$ are precisely the invertible linear maps on $\textbf{M}_{n}$ which preserve the set of matrices of term rank 1.An interesting graph theoretic connection to the linear preservers of Hadamard majorization is exhibited. A number of examples are also provided in the paper.

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