nonnegative matrix, nonnegative inverse eigenvalue problem, permutative matrix
The Real Nonnegative Inverse Eigenvalue Problem (RNIEP) asks when is a list \[ \sigma=(\lambda_1, \lambda_2,\ldots,\lambda_n)\] consisting of real numbers the spectrum of an $n \times n$ nonnegative matrix $A$. In that case, $\sigma$ is said to be realizable and $A$ is a realizing matrix. In a recent paper dealing with RNIEP, P.~Paparella considered cases of realizable spectra where a realizing matrix can be taken to have a special form, more precisely such that the entries of each row are obtained by permuting the entries of the first row. A matrix of this form is called permutative. Paparella raised the question whether any realizable list $\sigma$ can be realized by a permutative matrix or a direct sum of permutative matrices. In this paper, it is shown that in general the answer is no.
"A note on the real nonnegative inverse eigenvalue problem",
Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra,
Volume 31, pp. 765-773.