Gd-doped HfO2 films deposited on silicon substrates undergo a crystallographic change from monoclinic to fluorite cubic phase with increasing Gd concentrations. The crystallographic phase change is accompanied by a small increase in the valence bandwidth and in the apparent band offset in the surface region. Electrical measurements show pronounced rectification properties for lightly doped Gd:HfO2 films on p-Si and for heavily-doped Gd:HfO2 films on n-Si, suggesting a crossover from n-type to p-type behavior with increasing doping level. © 2007 American Institute of Physics.
Losovyj, Ya. B.; Ketsman, Ihor; Sokolov, A.; Belashchenko, K. D.; Dowben, P. A.; Tang, Jinke; and Wang, Zhenjun (2007). "The electronic structure change with Gd doping of Hf O 2 on silicon." APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS .91, 132908-1-132908-3.