Yellowstone National Park Report
The number of elk and bison that should occupy Yellowstones northern range is strictly a value decision that rests in the hands of park management and, ultimately, public opinion, and is beyond the scope of this study. The objective here is to place elk and bison herbivory in the northern range in an ecosystem context, so that their affect can be understood in a mechanistic fashion. Specifically, we will address their influence on energy and nutrient flows in the system. With this information, park managers will be able to weigh management alternatives in an ecosystem process framework.
Frank, Douglas A. and McNaughton, S. J.
"Interactive Ecology of Plants and Large Mammal Herbivores in the Northern Range of Yellowstone National Park,"
University of Wyoming National Park Service Research Center Annual Report: Vol. 11
, Article 27.
Available at: http://repository.uwyo.edu/uwnpsrc_reports/vol11/iss1/27