Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Report
Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Englem.) is a keystone species of many high elevation ecosystems in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) and directly influence watershed quality by regulating snow accumulation and retention, facilitating regeneration after a disturbance, and stabilizing soil and rock on steep, harsh sites.
Bockino, Nancy and Tinker, Daniel B.
"Disturbance Interactions: Mountain Pine Beetle & Blister Rust in Whitebark Pine,"
University of Wyoming National Park Service Research Center Annual Report: Vol. 30
, Article 13.
Available at: http://repository.uwyo.edu/uwnpsrc_reports/vol30/iss1/13