Grand Teton National Park Report
Freshwater gastropods are a diverse taxa that inhabit a wide variety of freshwater habitats (Lydeard et al. 2004, Strong et al. 2008). Freshwater gastropods often form narrow endemic ranges (Strong et al. 2008) with many species restricted to a single drainage or an isolated spring (Brown et al. 2008). In North America, over 60% of freshwater snails are listed as imperiled or presumed extinct (Lysne et al. 2008). The main factors for the reduction in snail biodiversity are habitat loss, water pollution, and the introduction of invasive species (Strong et al. 2008). Invasive species can dramatically alter the native community by reducing biodiversity and changing ecological processes (Alonso and Castro-Diez 2008). The effects of invasive species on aquatic ecosystems are often permanent and lead to reductions in biodiversity due to predation and competition with native species (Alonso and Castro-Diez 2008, Lysne et al. 2008, Strayer 1999). Invasive gastropods impact native ecosystems by altering carbon and nitrogen levels (Hall et al. 2003, Arango et al. 2009), consuming large amounts of primary producer biomass (Hall et al. 2003, Riley et al. 2008, Strayer 2010), and changing native macroinvertebrate community composition (Kerans et al. 2005, Riley et al. 2008, Cross et al. 2010, Brenneis et al. 2011).
Larson, Michele and Beauvais, Gary
"Preliminary Study of the Influence of Conductivity and Calcium Concentrations on the Density and Species Richness of Native and Invasive Gastropods in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming,"
University of Wyoming National Park Service Research Center Annual Report: Vol. 36
, Article 5.
Available at: http://repository.uwyo.edu/uwnpsrc_reports/vol36/iss1/5