I genotyped lek-mating Long-tailed Manakins (Chiroxiphia linearis) at Monteverde and Santa Rosa, Costa Rica, 115 km apart. Cavalli-Sforza distance was 0.04, D-LR was 0.18, and R-ST and theta were both 0.02. Bayesian clustering analysis indicated that both populations were part of a single cluster rather than from distinct clusters. I present a binomial test for probability of allelic absence as a function of sample size. Genotypic likelihood tests assigned 50% of Monteverde birds to Santa Rosa, versus 26% of Santa Rosa birds to Monteverde. Two lines of evidence supported the idea of asymmetric gene flow up the elevational gradient from Santa Rosa to Monteverde. Low differentiation at this spatial scale, despite intense sexual selection, suggests that sexual selection alone is unlikely to promote rapid divergence leading to speciation. Reduced gene flow, produced by geographic barriers or behavioral factors, may also be required.
McDonald, David (2003). "Microsatellite Dna Evidence for Gene Flow in Neotropical Lek-Mating Long-Tailed Manakins." Condor 105.3, 580-586.