A numerical modeling study has been conducted to explore the ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model-based large-eddy simulation (LES) with 100-m grid spacing to reproduce silver iodide (AgI) particle dispersion by comparing the model results with measurements made on 16 February 2011 over theMedicineBowMountains inWyoming. Xue et al.'s recently developed AgI cloud-seeding parameterization was applied in this study to simulate AgI release from ground-based generators. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons between the LES results and observed AgI concentrations were conducted.Analyses of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) features within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and comparisons between the 100-m LES and simulations with 500-m grid spacing were performed as well. The results showed the following: 1) Despite the moist bias close to the ground and above 4kmAGL, the LES with 100-m grid spacing captured the essential environmental conditions except for a slightly more stable PBL relative to the observed soundings. 2) Wind shear is the dominantTKE productionmechanism inwintertime PBL over complex terrain and generates a PBL of about 1000-m depth. The terrain-induced turbulent eddies are primarily responsible for the vertical dispersion of AgI particles. 3) The LES-simulated AgI plumes were shallow and narrow, in agreement with observations. The LES overestimated AgI concentrations close to the ground, which is consistent with the higher static stability in the model than is observed. 4) Non-LES simulations using PBL schemes had difficulty in capturing the shear-dominant turbulent PBL structure over complex terrain in wintertime. Therefore, LES of wintertime orographic clouds with grid spacing close to 500m or finer are recommended. © 2014 American Meteorological Society.
Xue, Lulin; Chu, Xia; Rasmussen, Roy; Breed, Daniel; Boe, Bruce; and Geerts, Bart (2014). "The Dispersion of Silver Iodide Particles from Ground-Based Generators Over Complex Terrain. Part II: WRF Large-Eddy Simulations Versus Observations." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 53.6, 1342-1361.