Algebraically Positive Matrices, Signed Digraphs, Sign Pattern Matrices
A square matrix M with real entries is algebraically positive (AP) if there exists a real polynomial p such that all entries of the matrix p(M) are positive. A square sign pattern matrix S allows algebraic positivity if there is an algebraically positive matrix M whose sign pattern is S. On the other hand, S requires algebraic positivity if matrix M, having sign pattern S, is algebraically positive. Motivated by open problems raised in a work of Kirkland, Qiao, and Zhan (2016) on AP matrices, all nonequivalent irreducible 3 by 3 sign pattern matrices are listed and classify into three groups (i) those that require AP, (ii) those that allow but not require AP, or (iii) those that do not allow AP. A necessary condition for an irreducible n by n sign pattern to allow algebraic positivity is also provided.
Pelejo, Diane Christine and Abagat, Jean Leonardo.
"On Sign Pattern Matrices that Allow or Require Algebraic Positivity",
Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra,
Volume 35, pp. 331-356.