We present new olivine-hosted melt inclusion volatile (H(2)O, CO(2), S, Cl, F) and major element data from five historic eruptions of Nyamuragira volcano (1912, 1938, 1948, 1986, 2006). Host-olivine Mg#'s range from 71 to 84, with the exception of the 1912 sample (Mg# = 90). Inclusion compositions extend from alkali basalts to basanite-tephrites. Our results indicate inclusion entrapment over depths ranging from 3 to 5 km, which agree with independent estimates of magma storage depths (3-7 km) based on geophysical methods. Melt compositions derived from the 1986 and 2006 Nyamuragira tephra samples best represent pre-eruptive volatile compositions because these samples contain naturally glassy inclusions that underwent less post-entrapment modification than crystallized inclusions. Volatile concentrations of the 1986 and 2006 samples are as follows: H(2)O ranged from 0.6 to 1.4 wt %, CO(2) from 350 to 1900 ppm, S from 1300 to 2400 ppm, Cl from 720 to 990 ppm, and F from 1500 to 2200 ppm. Based on FeO(T) and S data, we suggest that Nyamuragira magmas have higher fO(2) (>NNO) than MORB. We estimate the total amount of sulfurl dioxide (SO(2)) released from the 1986 (0.04 Mt) and 2006 (0.06 Mt) Nyamuragira eruptions using the petrologic method, whereby S contents in melt inclusions are scaled to erupted lava volumes. These amounts are significantly less than satellite-based SO(2) emissions for the same eruptions (1986 - similar to 1 Mt; 2006 - similar to 2 Mt). Potential explanations for this observation are: (1) accumulation of a vapor phase within the magmatic system that is only released during eruptions, and/or (2) syn-eruptive gas release from unerupted magma.
Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems
Head, E. M.; Shaw, A. M.; Wallace, P. J.; Sims, Ken; and Carn, S. A. (2011). "Insight Into Volatile Behavior At Nyamuragira Volcano (D.R. Congo, Africa) Through Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions." Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 12.