Date of Award
Medical proof of torture is often difficult to obtain; especially when certain torture methods are designed not to leave a mark. With that being said, when skeletal remains are discovered from an area historically known to be a breeding ground for torturous behavior, it is through skeletal analysis that biological/ forensic anthropologists are able to interpret the kind of horrific experiences that the victims went through. Torture methods such as falanga, beatings, and incomplete tooth fracture (ITF) are just some of the methods that can be interpreted from skeletal remains.
Traczek, Deanna Noelle, "A Historical and Osteological Examination of Torture" (2017). Honors Theses AY 16/17. 61.