The fringed tapeworm parasitizes wild ruminants of South and North America. It parasitizes domestic sheep and cattle in both continents, but is of economic importance only in domestic sheep. In these animals the tapeworm invades the bile ducts of the liver. The greatest economic loss is due to the condemnation of livers in which parasite is found when the animal is slaughtered. This loss for the United States amounts to over one half million dollars annually. Project Number 90.
Honess, Ralph F.
"Ecology of Helminth Worms in Cattle and Moose,"
Jackson Hole Research Station Annual Report: Vol. 1957
, Article 7.
Available at: https://repository.uwyo.edu/jhrs_reports/vol1957/iss1/7