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Recent documents in Wyoming Scholars Repositoryen-usSun, 19 May 2019 02:44:21 PDT3600The Determinant and Complex Gershgorin Circles
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/11
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/11Sat, 18 May 2019 04:45:28 PDT
Each connected component of the Gershgorin circles of a matrix contains exactly as many eigenvalues as circles are involved. Thus, the Minkowski (set) product of all circles contains the determinant if all circles are disjoint. In [S.M. Rump. Bounds for the determinant by Gershgorin circles. Linear Algebra and its Applications, 563:215--219, 2019.], it was proved that statement to be true for real matrices whose circles need not to be disjoint. Moreover, it was asked whether the statement remains true for complex matrices. This note answers that in the affirmative. As a by-product, a parameterization of the outer loop of a Cartesian oval without case distinction is derived.
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Florian Bünger et al.Pairwise Completely Positive Matrices and Conjugate Local Diagonal Unitary Invariant Quantum States
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/10
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/10Sat, 18 May 2019 04:45:23 PDT
A generalization of the set of completely positive matrices called pairwise completely positive (PCP) matrices is introduced. These are pairs of matrices that share a joint decomposition so that one of them is necessarily positive semidefinite while the other one is necessarily entrywise non-negative. Basic properties of these matrix pairs are explored and several testable necessary and sufficient conditions are developed to help determine whether or not a pair is PCP. A connection with quantum entanglement is established by showing that determining whether or not a pair of matrices is pairwise completely positive is equivalent to determining whether or not a certain type of quantum state, called a conjugate local diagonal unitary invariant state, is separable. Many of the most important quantum states in entanglement theory are of this type, including isotropic states, mixed Dicke states (up to partial transposition), and maximally correlated states. As a specific application of these results, a wide family of states that have absolutely positive partial transpose are shown to in fact be separable.
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Nathaniel Johnston et al.Vector Spaces of Generalized Linearizations for Rectangular Matrix Polynomials
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/9
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/9Mon, 22 Apr 2019 10:04:46 PDT
The complete eigenvalue problem associated with a rectangular matrix polynomial is typically solved via the technique of linearization. This work introduces the concept of generalized linearizations of rectangular matrix polynomials. For a given rectangular matrix polynomial, it also proposes vector spaces of rectangular matrix pencils with the property that almost every pencil is a generalized linearization of the matrix polynomial which can then be used to solve the complete eigenvalue problem associated with the polynomial. The properties of these vector spaces are similar to those introduced in the literature for square matrix polynomials and in fact coincide with them when the matrix polynomial is square. Further, almost every pencil in these spaces can be `trimmed' to form many smaller pencils that are strong linearizations of the matrix polynomial which readily yield solutions of the complete eigenvalue problem for the polynomial. These linearizations are easier to construct and are often smaller than the Fiedler linearizations introduced in the literature for rectangular matrix polynomials. Additionally, a global backward error analysis applied to these linearizations shows that they provide a wide choice of linearizations with respect to which the complete polynomial eigenvalue problem can be solved in a globally backward stable manner.
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Biswajit Das et al.Potentially Eventually Positive 2-generalized Star Sign Patterns
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/8
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/8Mon, 22 Apr 2019 10:04:33 PDT
A sign pattern is a matrix whose entries belong to the set $\{+, -, 0\}$. An $n$-by-$n$ sign pattern $\mathcal{A}$ is said to be potentially eventually positive if there exists at least one real matrix $A$ with the same sign pattern as $\mathcal{A}$ and a positive integer $k_{0}$ such that $A^{k}>0$ for all $k\geq k_{0}$. An $n$-by-$n$ sign pattern $\mathcal{A}$ is said to be potentially eventually exponentially positive if there exists at least one real matrix $A$ with the same sign pattern as $\mathcal{A}$ and a nonnegative integer $t_{0}$ such that $e^{tA}=\sum_{k=0}^{\infty}\frac{t^{k}A^{k}}{k!}>0$ for all $t\geq t_{0}$. Identifying necessary and sufficient conditions for an $n$-by-$n$ sign pattern to be potentially eventually positive (respectively, potentially eventually exponentially positive), and classifying these sign patterns are open problems. In this article, the potential eventual positivity of the $2$-generalized star sign patterns is investigated. All the minimal potentially eventually positive $2$-generalized star sign patterns are identified. Consequently, all the potentially eventually positive $2$-generalized star sign patterns are classified. As an application, all the minimal potentially eventually exponentially positive $2$-generalized star sign patterns are identified. Consequently, all the potentially eventually exponentially positive $2$-generalized star sign patterns are classified.
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Yu Ber-Lin et al.Jordan Triple Product Homomorphisms on Triangular Matrices to and from Dimension One
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol33/iss1/14
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol33/iss1/14Thu, 11 Apr 2019 11:53:29 PDT
A map $\Phi$ is a Jordan triple product (JTP for short) homomorphism whenever $\Phi(A B A)= \Phi(A) \Phi(B) \Phi(A)$ for all $A,B$. We study JTP homomorphisms on the set of upper triangular matrices $\mathcal{T}_n(\mathbb{F})$, where $\Ff$ is the field of real or complex numbers. We characterize JTP homomorphisms $\Phi: \mathcal{T}_n(\mathbb{C}) \to \mathbb{C}$ and JTP homomorphisms $\Phi: \mathbb{F} \to \mathcal{T}_n(\mathbb{F})$. In the latter case we consider continuous maps and the implications of omitting the assumption of continuity.
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Damjana Kokol Bukovsek et al.Regulation of the Practice of Law in Wyoming: A 150-Year Walk Through the History Books
https://repository.uwyo.edu/wlr/vol19/iss1/7
https://repository.uwyo.edu/wlr/vol19/iss1/7Mon, 08 Apr 2019 10:40:10 PDTMark W. GiffordWY Law DivisionBlowing It: Why Is Wyoming Failing to Develop Wind Projects?
https://repository.uwyo.edu/wlr/vol19/iss1/6
https://repository.uwyo.edu/wlr/vol19/iss1/6Mon, 08 Apr 2019 10:40:01 PDTBen N. ReiterWY Law DivisionBlockchain Challenges Traditional Contract Law: Just How Smart Are Smart Contracts?
https://repository.uwyo.edu/wlr/vol19/iss1/5
https://repository.uwyo.edu/wlr/vol19/iss1/5Mon, 08 Apr 2019 10:39:51 PDTMorgan N. TemteWY Law DivisionIllegitimate Succession: Vestigial Discrimination in Wyoming’s Rules of Intestate Descent
https://repository.uwyo.edu/wlr/vol19/iss1/4
https://repository.uwyo.edu/wlr/vol19/iss1/4Mon, 08 Apr 2019 10:39:42 PDTAllison Strube LearnedWY Law DivisionA Policy History of Federal Coal Leasing: Past and Present Challenges
https://repository.uwyo.edu/wlr/vol19/iss1/3
https://repository.uwyo.edu/wlr/vol19/iss1/3Mon, 08 Apr 2019 10:39:34 PDTJosh LappenLand & Water DivisionLeft in the Dust: Wyoming’s Instream Flow Laws from a Mountain West Perspective
https://repository.uwyo.edu/wlr/vol19/iss1/2
https://repository.uwyo.edu/wlr/vol19/iss1/2Mon, 08 Apr 2019 10:39:25 PDTAllison E. ConnellLand & Water DivisionMinute by Minute: An Assessment of the Environmental Flows Program for Restoration of the Colorado River Delta
https://repository.uwyo.edu/wlr/vol19/iss1/1
https://repository.uwyo.edu/wlr/vol19/iss1/1Mon, 08 Apr 2019 10:39:14 PDTMadeleine J. LewisLand & Water DivisionUnions of a clique and a co-clique as star complements for non-main graph eigenvalues
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/7
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/7Thu, 28 Mar 2019 19:28:19 PDT
Graphs consisting of a clique and a co-clique, both of arbitrary size, are considered in the role of star complements for an arbitrary non-main eigenvalue. Among other results, the sign of such a eigenvalue is discussed, the neigbourhoods of star set vertices are described, and the parameters of all strongly regular extensions are determined. It is also proved that, unless in a specified special case, if the size of a co-clique is fixed then there is a finite number of possibilities for our star complement and the corresponding non-main eigenvalue. Numerical data on these possibilities is presented.
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Zoran StanicAE Regularity of Interval Matrices
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol33/iss1/13
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol33/iss1/13Thu, 28 Mar 2019 19:24:10 PDT
Consider a linear system of equations with interval coefficients, and each interval coefficient is associated with either a universal or an existential quantifier. The AE solution set and AE solvability of the system is defined by ∀∃- quantification. The paper deals with the problem of what properties must the coefficient matrix have in order that there is guaranteed an existence of an AE solution. Based on this motivation, a concept of AE regularity is introduced, which implies that the AE solution set is nonempty and the system is AE solvable for every right-hand side. A characterization of AE regularity is discussed, and also various classes of matrices that are implicitly AE regular are investigated. Some of these classes are polynomially decidable, and therefore give an efficient way for checking AE regularity. Eventually, there are also stated open problems related to computational complexity and characterization of AE regularity.
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Milan HladíkCondensed Forms for Linear Port-Hamiltonian Descriptor Systems
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/6
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/6Sat, 23 Mar 2019 10:57:10 PDT
Motivated by the structure which arises in the port-Hamiltonian formulation of constraint dynamical systems, structure preserving condensed forms for skew-adjoint differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) are derived. Moreover, structure preserving condensed forms under constant rank assumptions for linear port-Hamiltonian differential-algebraic equations are developed. These condensed forms allow for the further analysis of the properties of port-Hamiltonian DAEs and to study, e.g., existence and uniqueness of solutions or to determine the index. It can be shown that under certain conditions for regular port-Hamiltonian DAEs the strangeness index is bounded by $\mu\leq1$.
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Lena ScholzBrauer's theorem and nonnegative matrices with prescribed diagonal entries
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/5
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/5Fri, 15 Feb 2019 13:17:52 PST
The problem of the existence and construction of nonnegative matrices with prescribed eigenvalues and diagonal entries is an important inverse problem, interesting by itself, but also necessary to apply a perturbation result, which has played an important role in the study of certain nonnegative inverse spectral problems. A number of partial results about the problem have been published by several authors, mainly by H. \v{S}migoc. In this paper, the relevance of a Brauer's result, and its implication for the nonnegative inverse eigenvalue problem with prescribed diagonal entries is emphasized. As a consequence, given a list of complex numbers of \v{S}migoc type, or a list $\Lambda = \left\{\lambda _{1},\ldots ,\lambda _{n} \right \}$ with $\operatorname{Re}\lambda _{i}\leq 0,$ $\lambda _{1}\geq -\sum\limits_{i=2}^{n}\lambda _{i}$, and $\left\{-\sum\limits_{i=2}^{n}\lambda _{i},\lambda _{2},\ldots ,\lambda _{n} \right\}$ being realizable; and given a list of nonnegative real numbers $% \Gamma = \left\{\gamma _{1},\ldots ,\gamma _{n} \right\}$, the remarkably simple condition $\gamma _{1}+\cdots +\gamma _{n} = \lambda _{1}+\cdots +\lambda _{n}$ is necessary and sufficient for the existence and construction of a realizing matrix with diagonal entries $\Gamma .$ Conditions for more general lists of complex numbers are also given.
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Ricardo L. Soto et al.Diagonal Sums of Doubly Substochastic Matrices
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/4
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/4Fri, 15 Feb 2019 13:17:33 PST
Let $\Omega_n$ denote the convex polytope of all $n\times n$ doubly stochastic matrices, and $\omega_{n}$ denote the convex polytope of all $n\times n$ doubly substochastic matrices. For a matrix $A\in\omega_n$, define the sub-defect of $A$ to be the smallest integer $k$ such that there exists an $(n+k)\times(n+k)$ doubly stochastic matrix containing $A$ as a submatrix. Let $\omega_{n,k}$ denote the subset of $\omega_n$ which contains all doubly substochastic matrices with sub-defect $k$. For $\pi$ a permutation of symmetric group of degree $n$, the sequence of elements $a_{1\pi(1)},a_{2\pi(2)}, \ldots, a_{n\pi(n)}$ is called the diagonal of $A$ corresponding to $\pi$. Let $h(A)$ and $l(A)$ denote the maximum and minimum diagonal sums of $A\in \omega_{n,k}$, respectively. In this paper, existing results of $h$ and $l$ functions are extended from $\Omega_n$ to $\omega_{n,k}.$ In addition, an analogue of Sylvesters law of the $h$ function on $\omega_{n,k}$ is proved.
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Lei Cao et al.In-sphere property and reverse inequalities for matrix means
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/3
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/3Sat, 09 Feb 2019 17:41:40 PST
The in-sphere property for matrix means is studied. It is proved that the matrix power mean satisfies in-sphere property with respect to the Hilbert-Schmidt norm. A new characterization of the matrix arithmetic mean is provided. Some reverse AGM inequalities involving unitarily invariant norms and operator monotone functions are also obtained.
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Trung Hoa Dinh et al.Surjective Additive Rank-1 Preservers on Hessenberg Matrices
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/2
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/2Sat, 09 Feb 2019 17:41:29 PST
Let $H_{n}(\mathbb{F})$ be the space of all $n\times n$ upper Hessenberg matrices over a field~$\mathbb{F}$, where $n$ is a positive integer greater than two. In this paper, surjective additive maps preserving rank-$1$ on $H_{n}(\mathbb{F})$ are characterized.
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PRATHOMJIT KHACHORNCHAROENKUL et al.Solving the Sylvester Equation AX-XB=C when $\sigma(A)\cap\sigma(B)\neq\emptyset$
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/1
https://repository.uwyo.edu/ela/vol35/iss1/1Tue, 05 Feb 2019 21:45:04 PST
The method for solving the Sylvester equation $AX-XB=C$ in complex matrix case, when $\sigma(A)\cap\sigma(B)\neq \emptyset$, by using Jordan normal form is given. Also, the approach via Schur decomposition is presented.
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Nebojša Č. Dinčić