The inability of American colleges and universities to produce teachers for America 's urban classrooms has reached epidemic proportions. This article seeks to describe the legal effects of policies and laws designed to create conditions for highly qualified teaching professionals. Issues germane to the topic of urban teacher preparation and certification will be discussed. The history of pre-service teacher education from federal policy and higher education 's organizational structure perspectives will be described, including the evolution of the Higher Education Act. Recent relevant litigation will be explicated using appropriate theoretical frameworks. Finally, relevant research related to higher education 's treatment of these problems will be discussed
Barnes-Johnso, Joy M. (2008). "Preparing Minority Teachers: Law and Out of Order." The Journal of Negro Education 77.1, 72-81.